Welcome to Expolanka (Pvt) Limited

The story of the Expolanka Group starts in 1978. Initially a pioneer exporter of fresh produce, the Company emerged unobtrusively as a strong and dynamic Group of Companies to be listed on the Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE) as Expolanka Holdings PLC. The Group presently operate in the sectors of Freight & Logistics, Travel & Leisure, Airline GSA’s, Manufacturing & International Trading.

Expolanka (Pvt) Limited, the International Trading wing of the Expo Group has steadily consolidated and sustained growth, to become market leaders in the products it exports ranging from Fresh Coconut, Desiccated Coconut and Fresh Fruits & Vegetables.

In 2008, the Company envisioned a growing demand for organic certified food. Hence, the Company Tropical Green (Pvt) Limited was formed. This company focusses on Organic Dried Fruit, Organic Fruit Pulps, Organic Coconut Water, Organic Virgin Coconut Oil, Organic Coconut Milk & Cream and Organic Coconut Flour.

The factory is certified with ISO 22000, HACCP and GMP and soon to be BRC certified as well. The products are Organic certified EU, USDA and JAS with ControlUnion, The Netherlands. Additionally Kosher and Halal certified, whilst registered with the FDA as well.

Certification

Exhibitions

Our Products

Fresh Coconut

JUMBO NUTS (SEMI HUSKED): Nuts half peeled leaving a husk of approximately one inch thickness around the shell for extra protection of both shell and the soft, thick kernel inside. These nuts are also available ranging sizes from 13”, 14” & 15” and above depending on the market requirements

TUFF NUTS (HUSK COVERING THE 3 EYES) : Nuts are husked according to buyer’s requirements, leaving a uniform pointed husk at one end to cover the 3 eyes of the coconut for greater protection of the soft kernel inside.

BALD NUTS (FULLY HUSKED) Also known as the “Lover’s Fruit”, the nuts have a thick kernel, which is pure white in color, rich and creamy in taste. The bald nuts can be easily cracked in two, after which the shells are separated from the kernel and then sliced into wedges for easy consumption.

Organic Virgin Coconut Oil

Organic Virgin Coconut Oil is 100% natural. Derived from fresh coconuts via a cold press to separate the oil and then micro filtered to retain nutritional values, in order to ensure the clarity, aroma, and taste.

Its high content of Short and Medium Chain Fatty Acids especially Lauric acid makes it unique in helping to preserve the natural immunity of the body (via Monolaurin formation) plus stimulating metabolism and delivering high energy levels in terms of Monolaurin supply in the human body.

Product Features : Cold Pressed, Rich in Laurci Acid , Vegan, Unrefined, Non-GMO, Unbleached

Application : Perfect Salad dressing, Ideal as a medium heat cooking oil, Great for skin care, hair care and message., Consume OVCO for healthy living as a natural food supplementary of 1-2 spoons daily or having with food as a food supplement

Shelf Life : 24 months from date of manufacture

Storage : In ambient temperature not above 30 C and below 60% Relative Humidity.

Packaging : 200ml, 320ml, 500ml, 720ml, 1L - wide mouth glass & plastic jar I 1000 Ltr - IBC tote
Other packing available upon request

Organic King Coconut Water

Organic King Coconut Water is made from 100% young king coconuts. Organic King Coconut water has been touting as Mother Nature’s sports drink. Its naturally contains 5 essential electrolytes of Potassium, Sodium, Magnesium, Calcium and Phosphorus to help you stay hydrated.

Product Features : 100% Natural, No preservatives added, No artificial colors and flavors added

Application : Organic King Coconut water is commonly used as a beverage and a solution for treating dehydration related to diarrheal or exercise. After opening King Coconut Water, we suggest to store it in the refrigerator for consumption within 24 hours.

Shelf Life : 12 months from the date of manufacture.

Storage : Store in cool and dry place avoiding sunlight exposure.

Packaging : 200ml & 360ml Glass bottles I 190kg new steel drums

Organic Coconut Milk &
Milk Light

Organic coconut milk is milky white coconut milk which is derived from the meat of mature coconuts. The cleaned coconut kernels are processed under stringent quality assurance. Organic Coconut Milk produced under strict hygienic Condition in accordance to EU Food Legislation.
Coconut Milk: 17% Fat
Coconut Milk Light: 12% Fat

Product Features : Coconut flour is a delicious, healthy alternative to wheat and other grain flours, due to following characteristics , Enriched with Fiber and low in carbohydrate and low GI (glycemic Index) makes Coconut Flour, suitable to for those seeking weight losses., Gluten free, hypoallergenic and made up of 12% protein, Low carbohydrate, Low in digestible carbohydrates, Coconut flour is unsweetened and does not contain added sulfites.

Organoleptic Properties :Appearance / Color:White grayish/liquid
Flavor& taste:Free from odors foreign to coconuts, Creamy, nattily, sweetish not rancid/soapy
Texture:Liquid, little milky (phase formation below 180°C,)


Application :Organic coconut crème commonly used as an ingredient in many tropical cuisines when preparing curries & desserts. ,Ideal substitute for dairy milk in everyday cooking.

Storage : Expiry: 24 months from the date of manufacture, Storage: Cool, dry place away from direct sunlight

Packaging : 200ml – 6 or 12 cans in one carton, 400ml – 6 or 12 cans in one carton

Organic Coconut Flour

Organic Coconut Flour is made by drying and defatting the coconut meal after the extraction of Virgin Coconut Oil which has a mouthwatering sweet nutty fragrance. 100% pure coconut flour that allows to bake high quality foods.

Product Features : Coconut flour is a delicious, healthy alternative to wheat and other grain flours, due to following characteristics , Enriched with Fiber and low in carbohydrate and low GI (glycemic Index) makes Coconut Flour, suitable to for those seeking weight losses., Gluten free, hypoallergenic and made up of 12% protein, Low carbohydrate, Low in digestible carbohydrates, Coconut flour is unsweetened and does not contain added sulfites.

Application : Sutiable for – The light coconut flavor allows coconut flour to blend seamlessly into sweet or savory baked goods. It makes a wonderful coating for meat, fish or other proteins in place of regular flour or cornmeal. Because of its high fiber content, baking with coconut flour is a unique experience. Coconut flour requires an equal ratio of liquid to flour for best results.

Shelf Life : 24 months from the date of manufactured.

Storage : Store in cold and dry place avoiding sunlight exposure.

Packaging : 500gm & 1kg pouch, 10kg 25kg, 50kg Paper kraft bag , Other packing are available upon request.

Organic Coconut Sugar

Organic Coconut Sugar is made from fresh coconut tree sap collected from the coconut flower bud. Its naturally lower glycemic index than can sugar. The taste is similar to brown cane sugar with a slight caramel taste.

Product Features : Coconut flour is a delicious, healthy alternative to wheat and other grain flours, due to following characteristics , Enriched with Fiber and low in carbohydrate and low GI (glycemic Index) makes Coconut Flour, suitable to for those seeking weight losses., Gluten free, hypoallergenic and made up of 12% protein, Low carbohydrate, Low in digestible carbohydrates, Coconut flour is unsweetened and does not contain added sulfites.

Ingredients: Coconut Oil

Application : Coconut sugar can be used as a direct substitute to Cane sugar. Flavor enhancers and sweeteners for cakes, baked goods, teas and coffees, chocolates, sauces and curries

Storage : Shelf life 12 months from date of manufacture provided. Product is stored in original un open below 60% relative humidity.

Packaging : Packing types can be customized based on buyer’s request

Coconut Crème

Organic coconut crème is a creamy milky white coconut crème which is derived from the meat of mature coconuts. The cleaned coconut kernels are processed under stringent quality assurance. Organic Coconut crème produced under strict hygienic Condition in accordance to EU Food Legislation.

Ingredients : Coconut crème made with 100% pure with no additives added, Organic coconut kernel extract, Water stabilizer E412, Does not contain any genetically substance.

Organoleptic Properties: Appearance / Color: White grayish/liquid
Flavor& taste: Free from odors foreign to coconuts, Creamy, nattily, sweetish not rancid/soapy
Texture: Liquid, little milky (phase formation below 180°C,)

Application :Organic coconut crème commonly used as an ingredient in many tropical cuisines when preparing curries & desserts., Ideal substitute for dairy milk in everyday cooking.

Storage : Expiry: 24 months from the date of manufacture , Storage: Cool, dry place away from direct sunlight

Packaging : 200ml – 6 or 12 cans in one carton, 400ml – 6 or 12 cans in one carton

Desiccated Coconut

Made from pure Coconut Meat without oil extraction in conformity

Product Features : Desiccated Coconut is perfect for various industries that require the exhilarating feel of natural fiber in the product such as confectionery Industry, Bakery Product, Frozen Food Industry, Food Processing, Food Service Industry, Consumer Products industry.

Application : Bakeries: Popularly used as topping for cakes and pastries, center filling of buns, decoration for cakes, Confectioneries – Very ideal as fillings for candy bars, chocolate coating.

Shelf Life : 24 months from date of manufacture

Storage : In ambient temperature not above 30 C and below 60% Relative Humidity

Packing : 25kg, 50kg 4ply Kraft Paper bags with inner polythene, Other packing available upon request

Refined Coconut Oil

Refined Coconut Oil is 100% natural, made from dried coconut with no chemicals used in the refining process

Product Features : Coconut flour is a delicious, healthy alternative to wheat and other grain flours, due to following characteristics , Enriched with Fiber and low in carbohydrate and low GI (glycemic Index) makes Coconut Flour, suitable to for those seeking weight losses., Gluten free, hypoallergenic and made up of 12% protein, Low carbohydrate, Low in digestible carbohydrates, Coconut flour is unsweetened and does not contain added sulfites.

Ingredients: Coconut Oil

Application : Low temperature baking and cooking, It can be used as frying oil, spraying oil, creaming fat and ice cream covertures.

Storage & shelf life: : Shelf life 12 months from date of manufacture, provided, product is stored in original un open below 60% relative humidity.

Packaging : 500ml, 1ltr Plastic &Glass Jar , Other packing available upon request.

Coconut Vinegar

Coconut Vinegar made from the coconut water by fermentation of sugar contained in the coconut water. When the coconut tree is tapped it produces a highly nutrient-rich "sap" that exudes from the coconut blossoms. This sap is very low glycemic, and is an abundant source of 17 amino acids, minerals, vitamin C, broad-spectrum B vitamins, and has a nearly neutral pH. Small batches ensure that the Vinegar made from this natural sap, is an unheated, enzymatically alive product, naturally aged for 8 months to one year. Coconut Vinegar nutritionally exceeds other vinegars in its amino acid, vitamin and mineral contents, and is an excellent source of FOS (a prebiotic that promotes digestive health).

Product Features : Coconut flour is a delicious, healthy alternative to wheat and other grain flours, due to following characteristics , Enriched with Fiber and low in carbohydrate and low GI (glycemic Index) makes Coconut Flour, suitable to for those seeking weight losses., Gluten free, hypoallergenic and made up of 12% protein, Low carbohydrate, Low in digestible carbohydrates, Coconut flour is unsweetened and does not contain added sulfites.

Application : Coconut Vinegar works well in soups, salads dressings, dips and can be used a as a substitute with other vinegars. When mixed with your choice of spices the coconut vinegar suddenly transforms into a uniquely flavored table sauce which can be used for dipping.

Packing : Packing types can be customized based on buyer’s request.

Storage : In ambient temperature not above 20-30 C and below 60% Relative Humidity. 12 months from date of manufacture provided.

Packaging : Packing types can be customized based on buyer’s request

Pineapple

Pineapples are actually not just one fruit but a composite of many flowers whose individual fruitlets fuse together around a central core. Each fruitlet can be identified by an "eye," the rough spiny marking on the pineapple's surface. Choose fruit that should be free of soft spots, mold, bruises and darkened "eyes," all of which may indicate that the fruit is past its prime. Some people judge freshness, ripeness and quality by tapping a finger against the side of the fruit. A good, ripe pineapple has a dull, solid sound while immaturity and poor quality are indicated by a hollow thud. It stops ripening as soon as it is picked; therefore, choose fruit with a fragrant sweet smell at the stem end. Avoid those that smell musty, sour or fermented. Cut Fruit, if Chilled, Retains Many of its Nutrients for at Least 6 Days.

Product Features Fresh pineapple is an excellent source of antioxidant vitamin; vitamin C. It also contains small amount Vitamin A (provides 58 IU per 100 g) and beta-carotene levels, Fresh pineapple is low in calories. Nonetheless, it is a storehouse for several unique health promoting compounds, minerals and vitamins that are essential for optimum health., Pineapple fruit contains a proteolytic enzyme bromelain that digests food by breaking down protein, manganese and thiamin (Vitamin B1) for Energy Production and Antioxidant Defenses, Protection against Macular Degeneration

Variety :Mauritius

Quality :1-1.5 kg fruits in uniform sizes without any damages

Packaging : 6-9 kgs in a box in corrugated carton with partitions

Banana

Enjoy banana fruit; nature's own energy-rich food that comes with a safety envelope! Fresh, creamy, and delicious dessert bananas are one of the cheapest and readily available fruits year around.

Product Features Banana is one of the high calorie, tropical fruits. It contains health promoting flavonoid poly-phenolic antioxidants such as lutein, zea-xanthin, ß and a-carotenes, albeit, in small amounts., The fruit holds a good amount of soluble dietary fiber (7% of DRA per 100 g) that helps normal bowel movements; thereby reducing constipation problems., Banana is good source of vitamin-B6 (pyridoxine); provides about 28% of daily-recommended allowance. Pyridoxine is an important B-complex vitamin that has beneficial role for the treatment of neuritis, and anemia., The fruit is also a moderate source of vitamin-C, Fresh bananas provide adequate levels of minerals like copper, magnesium, and manganese. Magnesium is essential for bone strengthening and has a cardiac-protective role as well, Banana is one of the high calorie, tropical fruits. It contains health promoting flavonoid poly-phenolic antioxidants such as lutein, zea-xanthin, ß and a-carotenes, albeit, in small amounts., The fruit holds a good amount of soluble dietary fiber (7% of DRA per 100 g) that helps normal bowel movements; thereby reducing constipation problems., Banana is good source of vitamin-B6 (pyridoxine); provides about 28% of daily-recommended allowance. Pyridoxine is an important B-complex vitamin that has beneficial role for the treatment of neuritis, and anemia. ,The fruit is also a moderate source of vitamin-C, Fresh bananas provide adequate levels of minerals like copper, magnesium, and manganese. Magnesium is essential for bone strengthening and has a cardiac-protective role as well

Variety :

Packaging :Packing 5,7,13 kg packing corrugated carton

Rambutan

In structure, the fruit is a drupe; oval, heart-shaped or nearly round, measures about 3–5 cm long and 3 cm in diameter and weigh about 10 g. In appearance, the fruit has close resemblances with longan and rambutan fruits. Its outer skin is rough leathery rind or peel, featuring pink color. Its peel can be detached easily in the ripe berries. Inside, its flesh consists of edible portion or aril that is white, translucent, sweet, and juicy. Litchi has sweet taste, and fragrant flavor that everyone from children to elderly delighted to savor. Its flesh envelopes around a single, glossy, brown seed.

Product Features Lychee fruit contains 66 calories per 100 g, Excellent source of vitamin C, Good source of B-complex vitamins such as thiamin, niacin, and folates, Rambutan carries a good amount of minerals like potassium and copper

Variety :Malwana special

Quality :26-30 fruits per kg

Packaging :1-2 kgs in tray packing per box in attractive laminated corrugated cartons

Mangosteen

The purple Mangosteen is a sesonal fruit, acclaimed for its unique appearance and flavour is often revered as queen of the tropical fruits, especially in the orient.

Product Features Natural antioxidant, Containts low calaories, Enrich with vitamin C, Mangosteen aids in promoting red blood cells and prevents against anaemia, Diet rich in mangosteen is helpful in reducing the level of cholesterol he antioxidants found in mangosteen help to prevent cancer, One of the major health benefits of mangosteen is its effectiveness in treating Alzheimer’s disease

Quality : 16-20 fruits per kg

Packing : 1-2 kgs in tray packing per box in with laminated corrugated cartons



Ripe papaya

This exotic fruit, also popular as pawpaw, is packed with numerous health benefiting nutrients. It is one of the favorites of fruit lovers for its nutritional, digestive, and medicinal properties. It probably thought to have originated in the Central Americas. Papaya plant is grown extensively all over the tropical regions under cultivated farms for its fruits as well as for latex,papain, an enzyme that found wide applications in the food industry. Botanically, the plant belongs to Caricaceae family of flowering plants, in the genus; Carica.

Product Features The papaya fruit is very low in calories (just 39 calories/100 g) and contains no cholesterol; however, it is a rich source of phyto-nutrients, minerals, and vitamins.Fresh, ripe papaya is one of the fruits with the highest vitamin-C, important functions like free radicals scavenging, immune booster, and anti-inflammatory actions, It is also an excellent source of Vitamin-A (provides 1094 IU/100 g) and flavonoids like ß-carotene, lutein, zea-xanthin and cryptoxanthin, Papaya fruit is also rich in many essential B-complex vitamins such as Folic acid, pyridoxine (vitamin B-6), riboflavin, and thiamin (vitamin B-1). These vitamins are essential in the sense that body requires them from external sources to replenish and play a vital role in metabolism., Contains a potassium and calcium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids and helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure countering effects of sodium, Papaya seeds have been proven natural remedy for many ailments in the traditional medicines. The seeds can be found application as anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic, and analgesic, and used to treat stomachache, and ringworm infections.

Variety :Red lady

Quality :1-2.3kg weighing fruits without any damages or scars

Packaging :7-9 kgs per box in corrugated cartons with papaya nets

Green mango

“The king of the fruits," mango fruit is one of the most popular, nutritionally rich fruits with unique flavor, fragrance, taste, and heath promoting qualities, making it numero-uno among new functional foods, often labeled as “super fruits." Mango is one of the delicious seasonal fruits grown in the tropics

Product Features Mango fruit is rich in pre-biotic dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and poly-phenolic flavonoid antioxidant compounds. According to new research study, mango fruit has been found to protect against colon, breast, leukemia and prostate cancers., Mango fruit is an excellent source of Vitamin-A and flavonoids like beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin

Variety :Local

Quality :150-250 gms per fruit

Packaging : 5-10 kg per carton/net bag

Big Aravi



Product Features N/A

Variety :Isuru

Quality :3 inches and above yams without any damages

Packaging :Packing 8-9 kgs per box in corrugated cartons

Tapioca

A starchy substance extracted from the root of the cassava plant.Its most common use is in tapioca pudding, but the plant elements are also used in certain cultures as a sweet candy or snack

Each root is usually 1-2 pounds, and is rough, elongated, and brown in color..

Season: available year-round

Product Features Tapioca help in healthy weight gain, Increase circulation and red blood cell count, Improve metabolic activities, Protect bone mineral density, Protects heart health, and maintains fluid balance within the body. Protect against birth defects, Improve digestion, Lower cholesterol, Prevent diabetes

Variety White Peradeniya

Quality Size 250g-1.3kg yams with no damages

Packaging7.5kg-9 kgs net weight in corrugated cartons

King coconut

King coconut is the water contained in a variety of bright orange colored coconut (cocos nucifera var. aurantiaca) which is indigenous to the tropical island of Sri Lanka. Being the premier, or “king,” of coconuts, in terms of its water, king coconut is filled with electrolytes, is refreshing, rejuvenating, healthy and delicious.

Product Features Absolutely no dilution is done. King Coconut contains 100% juice.

King Coconut® is a powerful re-hydrant, given that its natural electrolyte levels are almost identical to those found in the human body. It is also an ideal hangover remedy and can even be used as part of a refreshing fruit smoothie.

Variety : Sri Lankan Orange/ Red King Coconuts:

Quality :1.7kg and above nuts without damages or scars

Packaging :6 nuts per box in corrugated cartons

Snake gourd



Product Features N/A

Variety :Sri Lankan Local

Quality :30-42 inches long without damages or scars

Packaging :Packing 4-5kgs per box in corrugated cartons

Bread fruit

Breadfruit is a species of flowering tree in the mulberry family originating in the South east asia. This remarkable food: The prickly football-size pod is full of nutrients and energy. Growing on one of the earth's highest-yielding trees, it could even help alleviate world hunger, backers believe.

Product Features Bread Fruits is an excellent source of of minerals like potassium, iron, calcium, zinc, selenium, manganese., It has small amounts of flavonoid anti-oxidants in the form of xanthin and luein. Yellow-orange varieties have more of these compounds. Its pulp has more fiber than in jackfruit, which makes it a good bulk laxative. Dietary fiber helps reduce blood cholesterol by preventing its absorption in the gut, reduce obesity, blood pressure and help protect the colon mucous membrane by warding off cancer-causing chemicals from the colon.

Variety :Local

Quality :350 gms-1kg weighing fruits

Packaging :5-10 kgs per carton/thermos cool boxes/basket

ORGANIC DRIED FRUITS

Sri Lanka’s tropical organic dried fruits are in demand across the world. The Company manufactures under controlled conditions of temperature & humidity preserving their natural flavor, color and the freshness of its taste. The fruits are harvested from organic certified farms and are available in the form of,

• Dried Pineapple Rings, • Dried Pineapple tidbits/ pieces, • Dried Papaya strips, • Dried Papaya cuts/pieces, • Dried Banana coins/ halves/ full/dices, • Dried Mango strips

Product Features :100% Natural - No Added sugar - No so2 - No Preservatives

Benefits :• Significantly more calories per serving than fresh fruits making them a natural source of energy for athletes., • Dried fruits generally contains more fiber than the same-sized serving of their fresh counterparts., • Fiber helps keep your digestive system running smoothly also a good source of certain antioxidants., • Dried fruits contains little to no fat., • They are also a good supplement for people seeking to gain weight healthfully.

Application : • It is intended for direct consumption, • It is used as an ingredient for food production process

Physical & chemical attributes : Ingredient: Fresh Fruits,Moisture: 10-12',Water activity: 0.7

Shelf Life : 12 months from the date of manufacture.

Storage : Store in cool (Below 20c) and dry place avoiding sunlight exposure.

Packing :NW: 2.5kg x 4 per carton =10kg , GW: 2.70 kg x 4 per carton= 10.80kg,Dimension: 45x24.5x32.6 CM.,Carton per Pallet: 60 / Pallet/20" Container : 10, cartons/bags in 20 foot cont: 750ctn / cartons/bags in 40 foot cont:1500 ctn

ORGANIC FRUIT CHUNKS IN JUICE

Sri Lanka produces some of the most succulent fruits, whose flavors are naturally sweet & has an exotic taste. The products are all organic in nature and are available in the form of,

• Pineapple chunk in pineapple juice in jars or cans,• Pineapple Slices in pineapple juice in jars or cans,• Mango chunk in pineapple juice in jars or cans,• Fruit cocktail in pineapple juice in jars or cans

Product Features :100% Natural - No Added sugar - No so2 - No Preservatives

Application :• It is intended for direct consumption, • It is used as an ingredient for food production process

Physical & chemical attributes :Ingredient : Fresh Pineapple / Brix value : 11-15' / Ph value : 3.3- 3.9/

Shelf Life : 24 months from the date of manufacture.

Storage : Store in cool (below 25c) and dry place avoiding sunlight exposure

Packing :NW: 350g, GW: 588g, Dimension: 23.5x15.5x14.0 CM.,Carton-Bottles/Pallet: 448, Carton/Bottles: 06, Pallet/20" Container Pallet: 11, cartons/Bottles in 20 foot cont: 4920 ctn, cartons/Bottles in 40 foot cont: 9856 ctn

ORGANIC FRUIT PULPS

Organic fruit pulps is obtained produce sourced from Control Union (Netherlands) certified plantations. The Company produces a range of tropical fruit pulps which is very rich in taste and flavor,

• Pineapple pulp ,• Pineapple juice ,• Papaya pulp ,• Passion juice ,• Mango pulp

Product Features :100% Natural - No Added sugar - No so2 - No Preservatives

Benefits : Pulped Juices offer more Health Benefits than Clear Juices, Fruit Pulps are mainly the source for Vitamin C & various other nutrients, The Pulpy part of the fruit is a source of fiber and other nutrients., The fruit pulp serves as an excellent base for fruit soft drinks, nectars and teas; alcoholic beverages

Shelf Life : 12 months under frozen condition

Storage :Store at -18c (frozen condition)

Packing :NW: 350g / GW: 588g, Dimension: 23.5x15.5x14.0 CM, Carton-Bottles/Pallet: 448, Carton/Bottles: 06, Pallet/20" Container Pallet: 11, Cartons / Bottles in 20 foot cont: 4920 ctn, Cartons / Bottles in 40 foot cont: 9856 ctn,